Introduction to Geography on the Web Directions: To complete this lab you will n


Introduction to Geography on the Web
To complete this lab you will n

Introduction to Geography on the Web
To complete this lab you will need your Goodes Atlas a ruler and a computer with an internet connection. If you do not yet have your atlas, use the copy that is on reserve in the Foothill library, or visit your local library.
Read through this entire handout.
Answer each question in a separate write-up.
Attach your .doc, .docx or .pdf write-up to Canvas
Part 1: Maps
Maps are an essential tool for geographers. We use maps to locate phenomena, to show relationships, to prove ideas and to ask questions. You have probably looked at and used maps before, but the following is designed to help you look at maps with a geographer′s eye. The following introduces the essential elements of scale, resolution, themes, and coordinate systems used to describe our world.
Map Scale
The ratio of distance on a map to distance on the ground
Map scale is generally expressed as a ratio, such as 1:100,000. Expressing scale as a ratio like this is the most accurate way to express scale.
This means that one unit on the map is equal to 100,000 units on the ground; one length of your index finger on the map is equal to 100,000 of your index fingers on the ground, or the map is 1/100,000th of the real world!
Map scale can also be expressed as a ratio of common measuring distances, such as 1 inch to 256 miles, meaning that 1 inch on the map is equal to 256 miles on the ground. However, for this class we will be using the unitless measure such as 1:100,000
One way that I find useful to visualize map scale is to think about it in terms of a map of the world (see pages 18-19 in Goodes World Atlas). The length of the equator at different scales is a good way to think about the actual size of a map at that scale. The table below lists the distance on the map (if you were to lay a ruler along the map and measure the equator) for each map scale. As you can see, a 1:400,000,000 scale map would probably fit across two pages of an ordinary book, while a 1:10,000,000 scale map would take a wall of your classroom. At a 1:1,000 scale, a map of the would stretch across the county!
Map Scale
Length of the Earth′s equator on the Map (meters)
1:400,000,000 0.10002
1:40,000,000 1.0002
1:10,000,000 4.0008
1:1,000,000 40.008
1:100,000 400.078
1:10,000 4,000.78
1:1,000 40,007.8
Another way to describe map scale is to talk about ′large scale′ or ′small scale′ maps. This terminology can be very confusing, because it is the opposite of what our intuition says it should be. When geographers talk about a ′large scale map′ they are speaking about a map of a small area, like the college campus or a small city (1:24,000 to 1:100,000). When geographers talk about a ′small scale map′ they are speaking about maps of large areas such as all of California, Europe or the world (1:250,000 and up). This terminology makes the most sense if you consider that scale is a ratio, or a fraction. So if you had two (very large!) pies, one cut into 100 pieces and one cut into 500,000 pieces, would you want the 1/100th of a pie (the larger piece) or the 1/500,000th of a pie (the smaller piece)? Thus, 1:100 is a large scale and 1:500,000 is a small scale.
Answer the following questions. Each answer should be in complete sentences.
1. (1 points) What scale (as a ratio) is the map on page 192-3 (23rd edition) OR page 182-183 (22nd edition) of Goodes World Atlas? Is this a large scale or small scale map?
2. (1 points)What scale (as a ratio) is the map on page 118 (23rd edition) OR page 110 (22nd edition) of Goodes World Atlas (the main map, not the insets)? Is this a large scale or small scale map?
3. (1 points) What scale (as a ratio) is the map on page 284 (23rd edition) OR page 262 (22nd edition) of Goodes World Atlas? Is this a large scale or small scale map?
4. (1 points)What scale (as a ratio) is the map on page 122 (23rd edition) OR page 114 (22nd edition) of Goodes World Atlas? Is this a large scale or small scale map?
5. (1 points)What scale (as a ratio) is the map on page 136 (23rd edition) OR page 126 (22nd edition) of Goodes World Atlas? Is this a large scale or small scale map?
Measuring distance using map scale
You can find the distance between two locations using a ruler and the scale of your map. You can do this through either one of two methods:
Method 1: Use the table of contents to find the correct map to use. For example to find the distance between Paris, France and Warsaw, Poland, use a map of Europe (Page 190 in the 23rd edition, or pages 174-175 in the 22nd edition). Measure the distance between two cities. For Paris, France to Warsaw, Poland the distance is 3.25 inches. The map scale says that 1 inch equals 256 miles, so 3.25*256=832.0 miles. (you should round to one decimal place, or to one tenth)
Method 2: If your map does not list the relationship between inches and miles, you can still figure out distance using the ratio scale: For example, if your map had a scale of 1:500,000 and your two cities were 4 inches apart, just set up a simple equation:
1in/500,000in = 4in/Xin, so 4*500,000 =1X, X=2,000,000inches. You can convert this to miles by recalling: 12 inches = 1 foot, 5,280 feet = 1 mile, so 2,000,000 inches = 31.6 miles (you should round to one decimal place, or to one tenth)
When you make your measurements, be aware of the precision, or how exact your measurements are. Precision is a way of stating how sure you are of the exact value of your results. If you are really sure, you might have a very high precision, perhaps to the nearest hundredth or thousandth (0.01 or 0.001). It is important to be as precise as your measuring device allows. Round your work to the degree of precision specified. So if you are told to be precise to the nearest tenth, and you plug your values into a calculator and come up with 123.45678, your answer would be 123.5
Answer the following questions. Show your work.
6. (2 points) What is the distance in miles between Eugene Oregon to Spokane Washington? (precision to nearest whole number) (hint: look for a map of the Northwestern United States)Note that this is the ′as the crow flies′ (straight line) distance, NOT the driving distance as Google maps would calculate for you. Show your work.
7. (2 points) What is the distance in miles between Tokyo Japan and Hong Kong China? (hint: look for a map of Eastern Asia) (precision to nearest whole number) Show your work.
8. (2 points) You are given a map that is 1:300,000 scale. City A and City B on the map are 5 inches apart. How many miles apart are they in the real world? (precision to nearest tenth) Show your work.
9. (2 points) You are given a map that is 1:250,000 scale. City R and City S on the map are 8 inches apart. How many miles apart are they in the real world? (precision to nearest tenth) Show your work.
10. (2 points) You are given a map that is 1:100,000 scale. City L and City M on the map are 6 inches apart. How many miles apart are they in the real world? (precision to nearest tenth) Show your work.
Part 2: Coordinate Systems
Another key element of representing data on the map is the coordinate system. The coordinate system relates every location on the map to a location on the earth through a defined system. This is also called georeferencing. One major type of georeferencing is latitude and longitude, which divides the earth into a grid-like coordinate system. Turn to pages 4 & 5 (23rd edition) OR pages 18&19 (22nd edition) in Goodes atlas and observe the following:
Latitude lines are parallel to the earth′s equator. Latitude lines run from 90ºN at the north pole to 0º (the equator) to 90ºS at the south pole. Lines of latitude are noted as being either NORTH, or SOUTH, meaning north or south of the equator. So, for example, the Longitude lines are equidistant lines (they are all the same length) that run from the north pole to the south pole.
Longitude lines run from 180ºE to 0º (at the prime meridian which runs through Greenwich, England) to 180ºW. Lines of longitude are expressed as being either EAST or WEST, meaning east or west of the prime meridian. The international date line is located where 180ºW meets 180ºE.
How we divide latitude and longitude
Latitude and longitude lines are expressed in degrees ( º ), minutes ( ′ ) and seconds ( ″ ) with a directional notation (N, S, E or W). Minutes and seconds run from 0 to 60 (e.g. 60 seconds equals one minute, 60 minutes equals one degree). For example, something that was 120 degrees, 10 minutes and 30 seconds west longitude would be denoted 120º10′30″W. The ′squares′ defined by latitude and longitude are really not squares at all because they are on the spherical earth (though they look like squares on a flat map!). Make sure to watch the video above Lab 1 Overview Links to an external site.for help with this section.
Open your atlas to pages 18 and 19. See the grid of lines on the atlas. The horizontal lines are latitude lines, you can read the degrees of latitude along the sides of the map. For example, California is approximately between 30 and 40 degrees north latitude. The vertical lines are lines of longitude. You can read the degrees of longitude along the middle of the earth. For example, California is between 120 and 130 degrees west longitude.
Latitude and longitude can also be expressed in decimal degrees. With decimal degrees, the entire location is compressed into a single number. So, just as 2 1/2 can also be expressed as 2.5, 37° 21′ 45.2082″N and 122° 7′ 42.5172″W can be expressed as 37.362558, -122.128477. Note that in the system of decimal degrees, we have lost the letter designations of N,S,E,W. Instead, a latitude in the northern hemisphere is a positive value, a latitude in the southern hemisphere is a negative value. A longitude in the eastern hemisphere is a positive value, a longitude in the western hemisphere is a negative value.
Answer the following questions.
Use the index of your atlas to look up the following latitude and longitude locations in degrees and minutes
11. (1 points) What is the latitude and longitude of San Francisco, CA in degrees and minutes?
12. (1 points) What is the latitude and longitude of Chicago, IL in degrees and minutes?
For questions 13-15, use the Federal Communications Commission calculatorLinks to an external site. to convert the latitude and longitude that you look up in the index of your atlas to decimal degrees. Recall that latitudes in the southern hemisphere have a negative value in decimal degrees, and that longitudes in the western hemisphere have a negative value in decimal degrees.
13. (1 points) What is the latitude and longitude of Houston, TX in decimal degrees?
14. (1 points) What is the latitude and longitude of Jakarta, Indonesia in decimal degrees?
15. (1 points) What is the latitude and longitude of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in decimal degrees?
16. (1 points) What is the latitude and longitude of Zurich, Switzerland in decimal degrees?
Interpreting maps
In this section you are going to practice interpreting thematic maps in your atlas. For a primer on how to do this, watch this short video:
17. (1 points) Turn to the global Climate Regions map. What type of climate is found in Shanghai, China?
18. (1 points) Turn to the Annual Precipitation & Ocean Currents map. How many inches of rain fall in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo in an average year? Your answer should be a range, such as ′between 5 and 10 inches′.
19. (1 points) Turn to the World Soil Taxonomy map. What soil order is found in Bilbao, Spain?
Part 3: ArcGIS Online & GIS maps
Login to ArcGIS Online
Go to ArcGIS OnlineLinks to an external site. and use the Enterprise Login link
Your organization is Login with your MyPortal username and Password.
Go to Groups and click on My Organization′s Groups, and select GEOG01_DeLaCerda
Lab 1 Map LinkLinks to an external site.
Open the Lab 1 map
Click on the Lab 1 map to open it. Use this map to answer the following questions.
20. (1 points) Zoom in on Foothill College (the red star). Use the measure tool (Click the ′wrench′ looking icon on the bottom right to open the tool) to measure the distance between the Football stadium to the baseball field. How far in kilometers is it between the Football stadium and the baseball diamond (approximately)?
21. (1 points) Use the measure tool to measure the distance around the track (you will need to make a multi-segmented line). How far in miles is it around the track?
Zoom out until you can see all of the USA. Turn on the Sea Surface Temperature layer (check the box next to it in the contents or go back to the map and open the sea surface temperature imagery layer). Notice that a time slider appears at the bottom of your window. This layer has monthly sea surface temperature from 2008 to recently (it is usually 2 months behind). You can drag the slider to view different months.
Screenshot of AGOL map showing layers to open
22. (4 points) Compare the sea surface temperature of the west coast of the USA to the East Coast. Overall, which one is warmer in general? Does this change between summer and winter? Compare locations on opposite coasts at the same latitudes.
To turn in your lab:
Complete your writeup to all of the questions above in a word processing program and save your document as a .pdf or .doc (MS Word). Turn it in as an attachment here.
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