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Peer Response
Instructions:
Share your findings in your initial post, then respond to two of your peers.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references.
Estimated time to complete: 1 hour
One key content that I learned more about was cancer. This is a touchy subject for myself since my mom has been fighting a rare cancer for a few years now, so I always try to learn more about it whenever I can. There are multiple ways in which medical personnel can help detect and diagnosis cancer in patients. Diagnostic tests are not 100% reliable in the detection since they could have false negatives or false positive results. Cancer is a disease that is caused by cells dividing uncontrollably and spread into surrounding tissues. There are four classifications of cancer, and the type of cancer a patient has is classified into one of these types. They are classified according to the fluid or tissue in which the cancer cells originate from, or according to the location in which they were first developed. Once someone is diagnosed with cancer, it is important for them to get routine blood work to monitor their cancer and to monitor the effects they may be experiencing from their type of treatment. The patient will also get their cancer staged, which describes the extend of the disease at the time of diagnosis, so the medical personnel have a baseline. Staging of cancer is based on 3 main components, which are size of the primary tumor, extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes, and the spread of the tumor. There are multiple different treatment options for cancer patients. If the cancer is localized, then the treatment is considered curative, whereas palliative is for cancers that are advance. One type of treatment is surgery. When surgery in performed, the cancer and surrounding tissues are removed to ensure the cancer is completely removed, but in some cases the cancer may be impossible. The surgeons often time use a laparoscope which minimizes tissue damage and can improve recovery time. Some other treatments of cancer are chemotherapy and radiation. These are administered repeatedly to maximize tumor cell deaths. Often times, when a cancer is advanced, the patient is malnourished.
References:
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/what-is-cancer#:~:text=Cancer%20is%20a%20disease%20caused,sections%20of%20DNA%20called%20genesLinks to an external site..
https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/cancer-basics/what-cancerLinks to an external site.
https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/cancer/cancer/cancer-types.htmlLinks to an external site.
https://herzing.realizeithome.com/RealizeitApp/Student.aspx?Token=z0Ac961aYykEeFviXH7%2b462wZXtDa7VB7sANhjbUKaXzDqzxWXZzpcnZ9n3I0tm1jEcQ%2bTxx1y6JxCOCu%2f2N2xPujCGOapZTE6UPbdKEMATEgcOr0Z7hzU8oE7lPSWRlGmMXfdhfGJS33ak3hacmHdBPC0Lmr3ue9oITKyhFOUqCGR3e%2bGuRktE5r%2fzCpjvgnUc8rS9%2bDKAXJrN0T5NCeht%2f0Ymw2dnOCvFcAIEH%2fy0hBlI4Uwyi7ogY6BMdwPy9R69lgyMrUIvhVLcYIxJY42djICxcccqNJG%2bR7VDyO%2fX0QFK1lkDnzYKe5P7bmdNjJqRYRhABeNTw6XQMWBKQxgM5P93wTCh1mknqI%2fLvH9Ck%2fSXEuoacn1Q4C7vRWmF5Ooux%2b6mlPBssE2eVT4bEuc7loqX9mjIoTqCv3j3T82wd%2fqaXuA5dRcXgGFNZutOsOsCD6DbYEtC5ffSjobeN4wpJw8rRHyK2sVkZuoYZiUBemf6SCp0hFMv0QQ%2b8E0wAghDXYaRLYY9zJy%2biCGp%2b65ulN2KbpBAKryOJ8hGGF1fqERu9EzYtd2XSEaPiCeIhPg31DDqp8gwmIJTWFSbltVm4P9pTbJT6tmO4lRMIsauBeWyYP%2fLXLT3SslKbj6JwLinks to an external site.
Malnutrition and obesity are present all over the world and affect numbers of individuals coming from different walks of life, age, and race. Malnutrition is defined by Kobylinska as a state wherein the body experiences a deficiency of one or more nutrients that affects the cells, tissues, organs, and the whole body itself which leads to a decline in the body’s function and negative change in the overall clinical presentation of the body. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers malnutrition the greatest significant risk to public health worldwide and is observed between 20% to 60% of hospitalized patients (Kobylinski et al, 2021). As stated by WHO, “The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is ‘undernutrition’—which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer)” (WHO, 2024). Poor dietary choices, overconsumption of high-calorie such as overconsumption of sugar, high-fat, and carbohydrate foods, decreased physical activity, and poor lifestyle choices play a significant role of being in this condition. Assessment of individual nutrition and nutritional status should be done in order to determine the occurrence of malnutrition. These assessments include calculating the body’s BMI and blood chemistry tests. Limited access to healthcare has a big significant role in the increasing incidents of malnutrition and obesity. Micronutrients enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substances that are essential for proper growth and development. So, assessments, preventative measures, treatments, and nutritional management for high-risk individuals help improve a person’s health and well-being. Early detection of nutrition deficiencies such as low levels or vitamin D, B, C, magnesium and vitamin E and implementation of dietary treatments decreases the risk of developing chronic diseases such as type two diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. One of the major contributing factors of malnutrition and obesity is the poor understanding of nutrition and access to nutritional foods, poverty, and cultural practices, and differences which greatly affects health and development of populations worldwide, especially children and pregnant women in low-income countries. Kobylinska stated that “Micronutrient deficiency may include not only incorrect dietary choices, insufficient access to nutrient-rich foods, but also changes in the absorption, distribution, or excretion of nutrients, and altered micronutrient metabolism resulting from systemic inflammation caused by obesity” (Kobylinski et al, 2021). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition advocates for sustainable, resilient food systems, providing social protection and nutrition-related education for all, aligning health systems to nutritional needs, and providing nutritional interventions, ensuring that trade and investment policies to improve nutrition, creating safe and supportive environments, and enhancing and promoting nutrition governance and accountability, everywhere (WHO, 2024).
References:
Kobylińska M, Antosik K, Decyk A, Kurowska K. Malnutrition in Obesity: Is It Possible? ObesFacts. 2022;15(1):19-25. doi: 10.1159/000519503. Epub 2021 Nov 8. PMID: 34749356; PMCID: PMC8820192.
World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. (2024 Mar 1). Obtained from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweightLinks to an external site.
World Health Organization. Malnutrition. (2024 Mar 1). Obtained from: https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/malnutritionLinks to an external site.

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