ADHD and ASD in Children: A Case Study of Aria
LaPorscha L. Terrell
Southern New Hampshire University
Dr. Montenegro
June 14,2024

ADHD and ASD in Children: A Case Study of Aria
Zablotsky, B., Bramlett, M. D., & Blumberg, S. J. (2020). The co-occurrence of autism
spectrum disorder in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 24(1), 94-103.
This study analyzed the comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in children with
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The findings show that children with
both ADHD and ASD require more treatment and are likely to have other conditions than
children with ADHD only. This co-morbidity is related to higher ADHD symptomatology
and the combined hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD subtype. The conclusions
indicate the need for individual treatment strategies for children with both disorders like
Aria. This information will be helpful in explaining the challenge of addressing Aria’s
conditions and the need for holistic care plans.
Antshel, K. M., & Russo, N. (2019). Autism spectrum disorders and ADHD: Overlapping
phenomenology, diagnostic issues, and treatment considerations. Current psychiatry
reports, 21, 1-11.
Antshel and Russo discuss the similarities between ASD and ADHD and how the treatment
of both disorders may overlap. They point out genetic overlap and social and executive

dysfunction. Despite these overlaps, the disorders have separate phenotypes, and hence
should be diagnosed as different disorders. The article focuses on the necessity of taking
into consideration the presence of comorbid ADHD in ASD and vice versa. This study will
assist in elaborating on Aria’s dual diagnosis, understanding her peculiarities, and
highlighting the specific approach necessary to address her condition.
Salunkhe, G., Weissbrodt, K., Feige, B., Saville, C. W. N., Berger, A., Dundon, N. M., …
& Klein, C. (2021). Examining the overlap between ADHD and autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) using candidate endophenotypes of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 25(2),
This article explored the effects of ADHD and ASD on the cognitive abilities of the
patients, including intra subject variability, working memory, inhibition, and temporal
processing. They establish that ASD+ADHD children have greater intra-subject variability
and temporal processing abnormalities, like ADHD-only children, but not children with
only ASD. This study therefore underscores the need for treatment interventions to address
both disorders’ cognitive impairments. The analysis of the specific areas of cognitive
dysfunction in the students diagnosed with ASD+ADHD will help in the development of
an approach to Aria’s learning and behavior in school.
Hours, C., Recasens, C., & Baleyte, J. M. (2022). ASD and ADHD comorbidity: What are
we talking about?. Frontiers in psychiatry, 13, 837424.

In the work of Hours et al. (2022), the authors discuss the clinical significance of the high
prevalence of comorbidity between ASD and ADHD, wondering whether these should be
considered different disorders or manifestations of the same neurodevelopmental processes.
The article calls for more precise diagnostic classifications and raises doubts about the
effectiveness of existing diagnostic frameworks. This source will help in critically
appraising Aria’s dual diagnosis to guarantee that the management plan takes into
consideration her neuropsychological functioning. It highlights the need for fine-grained
clinical evaluations and the need to build intervention plans based on the particularities of
the cases.
Cheesman, R., Eilertsen, E. M., Ayorech, Z., Borgen, N. T., Andreassen, O. A., Larsson,
H., … & Ystrom, E. (2022). How interactions between ADHD and schools affect
educational achievement: a family‐based genetically sensitive study. Journal of Child
Psychology and Psychiatry, 63(10), 1174-1185.
Cheesman et al. (2022) explore the relationship between the ADHD symptoms, genetic
factors, and school settings on academic performance. The study reveals that positive
school climate reduces the effect of ADHD on academic achievement. This article is very
useful for discussion of Aria’s educational requirements and the necessity of schools to be
more tolerant. The findings of this study will help in developing ways of improving Aria’s
academic achievement and to make her learning environment appropriate to her learning
Lee, Y., Mikami, A. Y., & Owens, J. S. (2021). Children’s ADHD symptoms and
friendship patterns across a school year. Research on Child and Adolescent
Psychopathology, 49(5), 643-656.

Lee et al. (2021) examine the correlation between ADHD symptoms and the quality of
friendship in elementary school children and report that the children with higher levels of
ADHD symptoms are likely to have unfavorable peer relationships. The study also shows
that reciprocated friendships play the protective function against adverse peer experiences.
This information about Aria’s social difficulties is essential for planning interventions to
enhance her peer relations. The results affirm the need for social skills training
interventions so that Aria can learn how to cultivate healthy friendships and socialization,
thus promoting her healthy social adjustment.
Van Tran, C., Pham, M. M., Mai, P. T., Le, T. T., & Nguyen, D. T. (2020). Inclusive
education for students with autism spectrum disorder in elementary schools in Vietnam:
The current situation and solutions. International Electronic Journal of Elementary
Education, 12(3), 265-273.
Van Tran et al. (2020) assess the factors affecting the provision of inclusive education for
children with ASD in Vietnam, and find knowledge and resource deficits concerning
teachers’ and families’ support. The study calls for the enhancement of the existing policies
and access to good resources to address the education of children with ASD. From this
source, it is possible to find the information about the difficulties and opportunities for the
development of IEP, which can be relevant to the case of Aria. This suggests that sufficient
preparation of teachers and parents’ engagement is critical in building a conducive
educational atmosphere for Aria.

McClemont, A. J., Morton, H. E., Gillis, J. M., & Romanczyk, R. G. (2021). Brief report:
Predictors of school refusal due to bullying in children with autism spectrum disorder and
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders,
51(5), 1781-1788.
McClemont et al. (2021) explore the factors that determine school refusal resulting from
bullying among children with ASD and ADHD; children with these diagnoses are more
vulnerable to such episodes. The study categorizes classroom aides and behavior
management as the barriers against school refusal. This source of information is crucial in
determining the effects of bullying on Aria’s school attendance pattern and her emotional
health. It will explain how to improve the conditions in the school that would prevent
bullying Aria and encourage her to engage in school activities and maintain good mental


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